Note: All biblical citations are taken from the King James Version.

1. The women characters on which Trible reflects are Hagar, the abused slave woman of Abraham and Sarah (Genesis 16:1-16; 21:9-21); Jephthah's unnamed daughter, who is killed by her own father as a human sacrifice (Judges 11:29-40), the unnamed concubine who suffers gang-rape and murder by the men of Benjamin (Judges 19:1-30), and Tamar, a rape survivor (2 Samuel 13:1-22).

2. These and similar uses of the Bible have been well documented in such books as Robert Fuller's Naming the Antichrist and Jim Hill and Rand Cheadle's The Bible Tells Me So.

3. Amazingly, there is today an active network of Christian geocentrists who continue to maintain the same doctrines preached by Cardinal Bellarmine over three centuries ago. Chief among these contemporary geocentrists is Marshall Hall of Georgia; his 1991 book, The Earth Is Not Moving, went into a second printing in 1994. The cover blurb of Hall's magnum opus boldly declares, "Over 400 years of deception exposed! The Bible told the truth all along." Relying, like Galileo's seventeenth-century opponents, on a literal reading of selected biblical passages, Hall denounces the heliocentric model of the solar system as "a Satanic counterfeit" (20). Hall also maintains a directory of other contemporary geocentrists, such as Gerardus D. Bouw and R.G. Elmendorf, on his website.

4. Everett Tilson noted "the use by Christians of Ezra's demand as a biblical precedent for the practice of segregation" in his 1958 study, The Bible and Segregation (38). With both the Ezra passage and Tilson's commentary in mind, it is sobering to note that interracial marriages were illegal in some parts of the United States until 1967, when Loving v. Virginia was settled by the Supreme Court (Eskridge 76-77).

5. Nancy Wilson (120-34) has written one of the most insightful and comprehensive studies relating biblical eunuchs to contemporary sexual minorities; also worthy of note is James D. Anderson's article on the same subject which recently appeared in Gay Theological Journal.

6. Cathy Lynn Grossman's article on the Baptist controversy was helpful to me as I prepared my lesson for the class on Ephesians; also illuminating was A.N. Wilson's New York Times editorial on the controversy.

7. The Aryan Nations, for example, cite a host of biblical verses on their Internet site in order to "prove" that only the white peoples of northern Europe are true descendants of Adam. Also, Jim Hill and Rand Cheadle have documented the Ku Klux Klan's appropriation of the Bible in order to further a racist agenda (10-12). An essential scholarly study of the Aryan Nations, the Klan, and similar groups is Michael Barkun's Religion and the Racist Right: The Origins of the Christian Identity Movement.

Works Cited

Alpert, Rebecca. "Finding Our Past: A Lesbian Interpretation of the Book of Ruth." Reading Ruth: Contemporary Women Reclaim a Sacred Story. Ed. Judith A. Kates and Gail Twersky Reimer. New York: Ballantine, 1994. 91-96.

Anderson, James D. "Eunuchs: Outcasts of Biblical Times." Gay Theological Journal 1.3 (May/August 1998): 53.

Aryan Nations home page. Online. Internet. 20 May 1996. Available http://www.anwhq.com.

Barkun, Michael. Religion and the Racist Right: The Origins of the Christian Identity Movement. Rev. ed. Chapel Hill and London: U of North Carolina P, 1997.

The Bible and Culture Collective. The Postmodern Bible. New Haven and London: Yale UP, 1995.

Brownlow, W.G., and A[bram] Pryne. Ought American Slavery to be Perpetuated? A Debate between Rev. W.G. Brownlow and Rev. A. Pryne. Held at Philadelphia, September, 1858. 1858. Miami, FL: Mnemosyne, 1969.

Comstock, Gary David. Gay Theology Without Apology. Cleveland, OH: Pilgrim, 1993.

Douglass, Frederick. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave. 1845. Ed. Houston A. Baker, Jr. New York: Penguin, 1996.

Eskridge, William N., Jr. The Case for Same-Sex Marriage: From Sexual Liberty to Civilized Commitment. New York: Free Press, 1996.

Fantoli, Annibale. Galileo: For Copernicanism and for the Church. Trans. George V. Coyne. Vatican City: Vatican Observatory Publications, 1994.

Foster, Jeannette Howard. Sex Variant Women in Literature. 1956. Baltimore: Diana Press, 1975.

Fuller, Robert. Naming the Antichrist: The History of an American Obsession. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995.

Gomes, Peter. The Good Book: Reading the Bible with Mind and Heart. New York: William Morrow, 1996.

Grossman, Cathy Lynn. "Baptists' wife edict fires up feelings." USA Today 11 June 1998: 6D.

Hall, Marshall. The Earth Is Not Moving. 1991. 2nd printing. Cornelia, GA: Fair Education Foundation, 1994.

___. "Other Contemporary Geocentrists." Online. Internet. 14 Septemer 1998. Available: http://www.fixedearth.com/other.htm.

Hedges, Carrie. "Hate crime charges urged after man is dragged to death." USA Today 10 June 1998: 3A.

Hill, Jim, and Rand Cheadle. The Bible Tells Me So: Uses and Abuses of Holy Scripture. New York: Anchor-Doubleday, 1996.

Horner, Tom. Jonathan Loved David: Homosexuality in Biblical Times. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1978.

Jones, Charisse. "Gay student's brutal death stokes hate crime debate." USA Today 13 October 1998: 1A, 2A

Kaye/Kantrowitz, Melanie, and Irena Klepfisz, ed. The Tribe of Dina: A Jewish Women's Anthology. Montpelier, VT: Sinister Wisdom Books, 1986.

Kenworthy, Tom. "Hundreds mourn murdered gay man." Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 17 October 1998: A-6

Lorde, Audre. Sister Outsider: Essays and Speeches. Trumansburg, NY: Crossing, 1984.

Mather, Increase. A Brief History of the Warr with the Indians in New-England. 1676. So Dreadfull a Judgment: Puritan Responses to King Philip's War, 1676-1677. Ed. Richard Slotkin and James K. Folsom. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan UP, 1978. 79-163.

The New Scofield Reference Bible. Ed. C.I. Scofield. New York: Oxford UP, 1967.

The Original African Heritage Study Bible. King James Version. Gen. ed. Cain Hope Felder. Nashville: James C. Winston, 1993.

Patai, Raphael. Sex and Family Life in the Bible and the Middle East. Garden City, NY: Dolphin-Doubleday, 1959.

Scanzoni, Letha Dawson, and Virginia Ramey Mollenkott. Is the Homosexual My Neighbor? A Positive Christian Response. Rev. ed. New York:HarperSanFrancisco-HarperCollins, 1994.

Stanton, Elizabeth Cady, et. al. The Woman's Bible. 2 vols. 1895-98. Forew. Maureen Fitzgerald. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1993.

Tilson, Everett. Segregation and the Bible. New York and Nashville: Abingdon, 1958.

Tracy, David. Plurality and Ambiguity: Hermeneutics, Religion, Hope. Chicago, IL: U of Chicago P, 1994.

Trible, Phyllis. Texts of Terror: Literary-Feminist Readings of Biblical Narratives. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1984.

Warrior, Robert Allen. "A Native American Perspective: Canaanites, Cowboys, and Indians." Voices from the Margin: Interpreting the Bible in the Third World. Ed. R.S. Sugirtharajah. London: SPCK, 1991. 287-95.

Wigginton, Elliot. "The People Who Take Up Serpents." Foxfire 7. Ed. Paul F. Gillespie. Garden City, NY: Anchor-Doubleday, 1982. 370-428.

Wilson, Nancy. Our Tribe: Queer Folks, God, Jesus, and the Bible. New York: HarperSanFrancsco, 1995.

Young, Iris Marion. Justice and the Politics of Difference. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP, 1990.

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