In his new book, The Baptizing of America, Rabbi James Rudin speaks of a developing American “Christocracy.” Kevin Phillips, in American Theocracy, writes about a developing “theocracy.” Rudin is a moderate and Phillips has carefully detailed his own odyssey. Reviews of Phillips are coming in furiously fast, so we will concentrate on the “Radical Religion” theme of his subtitle, which is linked with two others, “Oil” and “Borrowed Money.” Not swimming in oil or debt money, but recognizing that Phillips interweaves “theocracy” inextricably with these other two themes, I have to specialize on Sightings ground. Phillips, once a Republican strategist and speech-writer, has read widely and well in the historical records and the political and social scientific works of our decades, and documents his work thoroughly. Would that there were space to quote or even outline his case, which I hope our readers will “sight,” sometimes if only to argue with the author. My advance copy of the book is all highlighted and scribbled up with quotations and judgments, graphs and charts, that I will not be alone in using. But here we have to hurry to a set of questions about “theocracy.” For whatever light it sheds on the subject, let me say that I tend, or try, to dampen hyperbole on subjects of this sort. In the sixties and seventies, when it was the fashion among radicals to call America “Amerika,” implying that European-style fascism was developing, my kind and I stepped back, contending that one can make a case about repression and its styles without invoking the extreme, even an often demonic aura of “the other.” The same goes for “theocracy.” Why give people a name they might savor and favor, or apply the term to near-miss phenomena? Phillips quotes many leaders of far-right and near-far-right Christian groups who want Christianity to have privilege, status, and even a monopoly on the spiritual front of a lame pluralist society, and sees — yes — theocracy in their goals. Advice to myself, after reading Phillips’s counsel: 1) Don’t assign to people a label and a position they don’t exactly hold; 2) Don’t lump all people called “conservative” or “born again” into the mix of the theocracy-minded; 3) Don’t label anyone “theocrat” who does not bear most of the marks of the theocrat; 4) Thus remember that, for people of faith on left or right, to try to influence foreign or domestic policy is not by itself a mark of theocracy — not by any means; 5) Do urge fellow citizens to be Madisonian (Federalist Papers X and LI), to work for the republic, against favor or privilege or establishment for particular religions (e.g., “Christianity” or “the biblical worldview”); 6) If you must blame, blame fairly, including the Republicans-not-on-the-right or Democrats-wherever-they-are for leaving a moral vacuum that exploiters can invade and exploit; 7) Make the point that theocracies have always corrupted communities of faith that favor them, noting that such polities are bad for religion; 8) Read and profit from Rudin and especially Phillips as they make their cases; 9) Be ready to link up with others, to see if at this late date the republic can be invigorated and survive; 10) Arrange with people you can trust to help you live with new strategies and old hopes, as you try to find a means of sleeping peacefully after you’ve read this unsettling script — and then awaken, for thought and action.
The Fairfax M. Cone Distinguished Service Professor Emeritus at the University of Chicago, Martin E. Marty taught there for 35 years, chiefly in the Divinity School, where the Martin Marty Center for advanced studies has since been founded, and in the History Department.
A columnist for and Senior Editor at the Christian Century for decades after 1956 and now a writer for its blog, he was the editor of the semimonthly Context, a newsletter on religion and culture, from 1969 to 2010, and a weekly contributor to Sightings, an electronic editorial published by the Martin Marty Center at the University of Chicago Divinity School.
A Lutheran pastor, he was ordained in 1952. He served parishes in the west and northwest suburbs of Chicago for a decade before joining the University of Chicago faculty in 1963. While serving his internship in Washington, D.C., he served for the year 1950–1951 as Interim Pastor of Pilgrim Lutheran Church in Chevy Chase, Maryland.
He is the author of more than 60 books, among them “Righteous Empire”, for which he won the National Book Award; the three-volume “Modern American Religion; The One and the Many: America’s Search for the Common Good”; “The Mystery of the Child”; “Building Cultures of Trust”; “The Christian World: A Global History”; “Martin Luther” (in the “Penguin Lives” series); and “Dietrich Bonhoeffer’s Letters and Papers from Prison: A Biography”.